Angiogenic Switches Play a Critical Progression in Cancer

Nozlena A Samada*, Ahmad Bustamam Abdulb, Rasedee Abdullahb, Heshu Rahmanb,d,e KZ Khora, Max Stanley Chartrandc


a Integrative Medicine Cluster, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 13200 Kepala Batas, Penang, Malaysia.

b Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

c Director, DigiCare Behavioral Research, Casa Grande, Arizona, USA.

d Department of Clinic and Internal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sulaimani.

e Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Komar University of Science and Technology, Chaq Chaq Qularaese, Sulaimani City, Kurdistan Region, Northern Iraq.


*Corresponding Author. E-mail:, Tel: (o) +604 - 562 2051 (hp) +6012 - 4118772, Fax: +604 - 562 2349


Angiotherapy, 2018, 1(2), xx–xx (Received 4 April 2018, Accepted 4 May 2018, Published 8 June 2018)


Citation: Samad, Nozlena A; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Abdullah, Rasedee; Rahman, Heshu; Khor KZ; Chartrand, Max Stanley. (2018). Angiogenic Switches Play a Critical Progression in Cancer. Angiotherapy, 1(2), pages xx–xx.



Tumor angiogenesis has become an important research area over the last decade for its crucial role as an essential component of the growth and spread of cancer. A large amount of literature has shown the link between tumor angiogenesis, metastasis, and overall survival of patients. Not all tumors are angiogenesis-derived and the angiogenesis switch is a sign of the ability of tumor and inflammatory cells to produce angiogenesis factors in tumor microenvironment. The condition of genetic stability of endothelial cells plays an important role in this phenomenon as it makes it less likely to build up resistance towards agents aimed at tumor vasculature. Also, the fact that only 0.05% of the adult human body undergoes angiogenesis, the potential side effects of anti-angiogenesis treatment is kept at a minimum. The study, hence, focuses on the role of angiogenesis in tumor development and operating this very particular switch in controlling tumor.    


Keywords: Angiogenesis; Metastasis; Tumors