Microbubbles and electromagnetic waves for the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent human ailments

Pegah Moradi


School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

*Corresponding Author.E-mail:


Angiotherapy, 2017, 1(1), 018–021. (Received 19 February 2017, Published 10 May 2017).


Citation: Pegah Moradi. (2017). Microbubbles and Electromagnetic waves for the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent human ailments Angiotherapy, 1(1), pages 018–021.


Molecular imaging such as ultrasound is capable of clarifying the expression of angiogenic markers in vivo. However, the capability of the method for volumetric “multitarget quantification” and for the test of anti-angiogenic therapy response has been investigated partly. Histologic data indicates that high concentrations of VEGFR-2 and of αvβ3 integrin during the growth of tumours are associated with an upregulation of the densities of markers by the endothelial cells, while a down-regulation of during therapy is due to decreasing relative vessel density. Therefore, targeted ultrasound appears practical for the longitudinal molecular profiling of tumor angiogenesis and for the sensitive evaluation of therapy effects in vivo.  


Keywords: Tumour angiogenesis, VEGF ultrasound, Contrast enhanced ultrasound